What is visual communication?
Visual communication is a form of communication done through visual aid. It is the conveyance of ideas and information in a way that can be read or looked upon. Visual communication relies on vision.
The Forms of Visual Communication?
- The text in the book is seen and read.
- Picture; video (the visible part of television transmission, newspaper image, and captured image)
- Gesture; motion (the use of movements (especially of the hands) to communicate familiar or prearranged signals)
- Body language (communication via the actions or attitudes of the body)
- Demo; demonstration (a visual presentation showing how something works)
- Eye contact (a meeting of the eyes between two people that expresses meaningful nonverbal communication)
- Projection (the projection of an image from a film onto a screen)
- Art; artwork; graphics; nontextual matter (photographs or other visual representations in a printed publication)
- Chart (a visual display of information)
- Graph; graphical record (a visual representation of the relations between specific quantities plotted regarding a set of axes)
Dimensions of visual communication:
Visual communication has two primary aspects in its form:
1. Two-dimensional images: 2D is ‘flat’, using the X & Y (horizontal and vertical) axis; the image has only two dimensions including
1. Signs: An object, quality, or event whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or existence of something else.
Fig. 1: Traffic signs
2. Typography: It is the art and technique of arranging type to make language visible.
Fig. 2: Typography
3. Drawing: A picture or diagram made with a pencil, pen, or crayon. It is an essential element in visual art and designing. It is drawn on paper.
Fig. 3: Drawing
4. Graphic design: It is a created image through the use of computer technology. It is the combination of words, symbols, images and text to convey messages. E-g logo, posters, banners, brochures etc
Fig. 4: Graphic design
5. Colour: Color is a visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to categorise something as called red, green, blue and others.
Primary colours are those that cannot be made from mixing specific colours. Red, yellow and blue is primary colours. Artists create all the other colours of the rainbow by combining the primary colours.
Fig. 5: Primary colours
Secondary colours are those that are formed by mixing primary colours i-e Green, orange and purple. They are created by combining two primary colours.
Fig. 6: Secondary colours
It is understood as:
- Mixing red and yellow we get Orange
- Mixing yellow and blue we get Green
- Mixing blue and red we get Purple
These are the colours that are formed by mixing primary and secondary colours. They are Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green & yellow-green.
They are formed by mixing three colours. As one secondary colour is made by mixing two primary colours and in this form one primary colour is added again. E-g if we want to mix orange with blue. It is done as:
- First, we will mix red with yellow to get orange.
- Secondly, we will add blue to orange to produce the required colour.
Fig. 7: Tertiary colours
All these colours are arranged in the form of a wheel called “colour wheel”. A colour wheel is a visual representation of colours arranged. The colour wheel is designed so that virtually any colours you pick from it will look good together.
The colour wheel represents primary, secondary and tertiary colours.
The placement of the colours can be understood as:
Take a blue colour (primary colour). Adding red into it with the equal quantity we get the purple colour. If we add more red as compared to blue, then the magenta colour will be produced otherwise adding bluer we get the bluish –purple tone. The variations are produced similarly with red and yellow.
Fig. 8: Colour wheel
Tints and tones:
There are two extreme colours; black and white
If we pick any colour, we can either add black to it or white.
Tones: If we add black in red, darker colour of red is produced that is called a tone of red. If we continue adding black to red, darker shades of red will be produced.
Tints: If we add white in red, lighter colours from red will be produced that is called tints of red. If we continue adding white to red, lighter shades of red will be produced.
Fig. 9: Tints and tones
Additive and subtractive colours:
Subtractive Color. Subtractive colour mixing means that one begins with white and ends with black; as one adds colour, the result gets darker and tends to black. It means we are subtracting light form the intensity and adding black into it. The result is black.
Additive Color. Additive colour mixing begins with a black and ends with white; as more colour is added, the result is lighter and tends to white. It means we are adding light to the colour, and the result is white.
The essential primary colours are Red, Blue and Yellow. But in computer and television technology, the primary colours are Red, Blue and Green. They both use a Cathode ray tube that senses three types of lights to produce tones on the screen. The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons) and a fluorescent screen.
RGB model of colour is additive. Additive mixing of red and green light produces shades of yellow, orange, or brown. Mixing green and blue produces shades of cyan, and mixing red and blue provides shades of purple, including magenta. Mixing nominally equal proportions of the additive primaries results in shades of grey or white.
2. Three Dimensional images: They include the perception of depth. In the 3D model, the object has length, width and height. It includes:
- 3D Animation: It is the rapid display of a sequence of 3D images, artwork or model characters to create an illusion of movement.
- Video: The system of recording moving visual images.
- Movie: A story or event recorded by a camera as a set of moving images and shown in a theatre or on television; a motion picture.
Fig. 10: 3D example
Depth is defined as Three-dimensional space taken by an object. These three dimensions are commonly called length, width, and height.
Magic eye images:
Magic Eye images are those images that are made to trick the human brain into perceiving a three-dimensional (3D) scene in a two-dimensional image. Magic Eye image creates an illusion of depth into a two-dimensional image; thus, when we view a Magic Eye image, we will see a precise 3D model hidden inside the two-dimensional image. All those images that can create an illusion of depth or may trick the viewer’s eye are called magic eye images.
In the left picture the pattern is made with lines, but it is creating an illusion of depth as random blocks are emerging out of a wall. In the second picture, the presence and absence of semi-circle are creating an illusion of depth.
Fig. 11: Depth
Space is the area between and around objects. The space around objects is often called negative space or breathing space. E-g if the purpose is in the centre and the rest of the place is blank. The blank area is space.
The object in the picture is called a positive space.
The rest of the empty is called negative space.
Fig. 12: Space
Size may refer to how big or small something is. The objects with the larger size in an image get the viewer’s attention more frequently as compared to small-sized objects.
In this picture, the circle on the right side is more extensive, and the viewer will see it at first sight. Then after moving through the object, the viewer eye will focus on the smallest object.
Colour is light reflected off objects. Colour has three main characteristics:
- Hue or its name: red, green, blue, etc. Hue is defined as the shade of the pigment.
- Value: how light or dark it is
- Intensity: how bright or dull it is
Fig. 13: Size
Light in the visual is the tone of the image i-e the intensity of darkness or lightness of anything seen. The darker image will feel dull, mysterious, hidden, whereas the lit image will create the illusion of openness. Illuminated images create more depth as compared to more coloured images because lit images present more area and in dark photos, a significant portion of the image is in dark colour.
Fig. 14: Lighting
The texture is the surface quality that can be seen and felt. Textures can be rough or smooth, soft or hard. Textures do not always feel the way they look; for example, the textured paper on which any drawing is made or the form of drawing with bumpy paints on a smooth paper surface. Texture can be created with colouring in the object as well. A texture gradient is a surface pattern which provides information about the purpose.
Fig. 15: Texture
Interposition is the partial blocking of a more distant object by a nearer object. It can be called overlapping of objects.
There are two circles. The farther circle in red seems to be placed behind the blue circle. Both are at the same distance (the distance of the screen from your eyes). It is the interposition, overlap that causes a sense of depth to arise.
Fig. 16: Interposition
Time is an element related to light and dark images. It means the time of the day the model is representing e-g day, night, evening, noon, morning etc. The noontime represented by the image is having more depth as compared to the night scene. Depth is created when background and foreground objects are seen.
Fig. 17: Time
Depth can be created through perspective. It is a technique of depicting volumes of an object and its spatial relationship with other purposes on a flat surface. The spatial relationship is the distance of the object from the background or foreground.
In this picture, the man is emphasised as it is at a more considerable distance from the other two females in the background. And the two females are kept blurred as to make the man stand out in the foreground.
Fig. 18: Perspective
Movement is the path that the viewer’s eye follows in the drawing or a painting. Such action can be directed along lines edges, shape and colour within the artwork. The eye moves in response to the unconscious process of measurement through the axis.
In this picture, the eye will move either from left to right or right to left as the curve line is followed. In the next image, the eye will run in the form of a spiral. The movement can be created from varying the size of the object within the artwork or through lighter to darker shades of objects.
Fig. 19: Illusionary movement
The real change is the one in which some object is shown moving. The moving object is captured in the form of video.
It is an optical illusion of motion produced by viewing a rapid succession of still pictures of a moving object. It is referred to as animation, which is the quick display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions to create an illusion of movement.
The movement in graphical imagery is the illusionary movement in 2-dimensional images. The graphical design allows the viewer eye to move through the design. Graphical design is the combination of symbols and signs, whereas the illusionary movement can be created through paintings and artwork; this is the fundamental difference among the two.
Fig. 20: Graphics